Sunday, 21 April 2013

Y11 The Crucible: Context

Here's content from a powerpoint I found from the internet. No copyright infringement intended, but it's pretty good for establishing context for the play...
McCarthyism and The Crucible
The Second Red Scare
Throughout the 1940s and 1950s America was overwhelmed with concerns about the threat of communism growing in Eastern Europe and China. 

Was this fear justified?

Well…yes and no…

Because the Communist Party in the United States helped to organize labor unions and was opposed to fascism, it gained a membership of about 75,000 members in 1940-1941. During WWII, the United States was allied with the Soviet Union. When we were fighting together, no one cared about communism.

The Cold War

After WWII, as the Soviet Union expanded its territory, the Cold War and fears of communism began again.

The Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected.

That same year, Mao Zedong's Communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy American financial support of the opposing Kuomintang.

In 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U.S., U.N., and South Korean forces against Communists from North Korea and China.
Who is Joseph McCarthy?

A Marine Corps veteran of World War II, McCarthy was elected to the U.S. Senate from Wisconsin in 1946.
He leapt to national fame on 9 February 1950 with a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, where he waved a piece of paper and claimed "I have in my hand" a list of known communist loyalists working in the State Department.

While the House Un-American Activities Committee had been formed in 1938 as an anti-Communist organ, McCarthy’s accusations heightened the political tensions of the times.
HUAC Investigates Hollywood
The Committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other movie industry professionals to testify about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party.
Hollywood Ten
Among the first film industry witnesses subpoenaed by the Committee were ten who decided not to cooperate.

Real Life Repercussions

The ten were sentenced to 6 months to 1 year in prison for contempt of Congress. They were also blacklisted from working in the film industry in Hollywood, until the 1960's when the ban was lifted.
Arthur Miller and HUAC

Before appearing, Miller asked the committee not to ask him to name names, to which the chairman agreed but later ignored the agreement. Arthur Miller had already been named as a suspected communist by another suspect at the hearings. Miller (now married to Marilyn Monroe) applied for a new passport.  The HUAC used this opportunity to subpoena him to appear before the committee. 
When Miller attended the hearing, he gave the committee a detailed account of his political activities (leaving out the fact that he was a communist party member).

Miller refused to name others, saying "I could not use the name of another person and bring trouble on him.“  As a result a judge found Miller guilty of contempt of Congress in May 1957. Miller was fined $500, sentenced to thirty days in prison, blacklisted, and disallowed a U.S. passport.  (sentence later overturned)McCarthy examined authors for allegations of Communist influence. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove these books from their shelves. Some libraries actually burned the newly forbidden books.
McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation.
McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of a U.S. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a brigadier general, led to the Army-McCarthy hearings.
The Army and McCarthy traded charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nationwide television audience. While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity
In less than a year, McCarthy’s position as a prominent force in anti-communism was essentially ended. On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67 to 22, making him one of the few senators ever to be disciplined in this fashion.
McCarthy died on May 2, 1957, at the age of 48. The official cause of death was acute hepatitis; it is widely accepted that this was exacerbated by alcoholism.

Victims of McCarthyism
The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.  Some of those who were imprisoned or lost their jobs did in fact have some connection with the Communist Party. But for most, both the potential harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous.
McCarthy did not just go after suspected communists, he also targeted gays.
The hunt for "sexual perverts", who were presumed to be subversive by nature, resulted in thousands being harassed and denied employment.

The Crucible and McCarthyism

The play focused heavily on the fact that once accused, a person would have little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public.